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The questionnaire is targeted to students and measures six main domains in addition to sociodemographic information: general health promotion programmes, health related skills and knowledge, policies, environment, community-school links, and support services. Following a detailed description of an intervention, as in this article, the reader, whether being professional in the school, or researcher in the field, gets a possibility to follow the steps and possibly avoid the pitfalls in planning phase. Of eight schools, four were allocated to intervention schools and four to control schools. This approach also takes into account the health and well-being of those working in the school, teachers and non-teaching staff. This special issue of HPI demonstrates the diversity in health promoting school initiatives and research. The health promoting school (HPS) approach was developed and introduced during the 1980s. Especially the children’s responsibility, innovativeness, and sense of achievements were respected, and together with adults, they formed a collaborative team. Hence, the focus on two behaviours at the same time appeared too complex for informal diffusion through peer networks. Offer nutrition education consistent with the Dietary Guidelines for Americans and the Food Guide Pyramid to help kids develop healthy eating patterns. They found that successful intersectoral collaboration between complex systems was created on strong interpersonal professional relationships and effective communication. Central in this programme was the component of training and using student peers to make an everyday impact on other students. This study showed the strong links between health behaviors and academic achievements among adolescents and emphasizes that schools and health promoters should be educated more on these relations, so that they are aware of this common interest to get more support for health promoting interventions. The article brings out an important message that health promotion interventions are necessary to find out effective ways to influence to target group, as well as keep updated on the methods available. They recognise the whole school approach to health well-being with an active participation of all members of the school community. Persson and Haraldsson focused on the Swedish school managers’ views of what health promotion in schools include, and found several factors that enabled the opportunities for learning and a good life. creating conditions that are conducive to health (through policies, services, physical/social conditions) building capacities for peace, shelter, education, food, income, a stable ecosystem, equity, social justice and sustainable development. Furthermore, it emerged that depending on the aims of the school-based health programme, a different level of collaboration was needed varying from schools as a site to delivery of clinical service to programmes which sought to change the behavior of students and/or schools as organisations. The alliance includes Education International, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Education Development Center, UNESCO, UNAIDS and GIZ. Your school will be matched with a HPS School Supporter who will help you move through the process outlined below. Results like this highlight the importance of both school-based and out-of-school physical activity, and as the authors bring out, should have implications all the way up to the government policy level. These are: developing and maintaining a democratic and participatory school community; developing partnerships between the policy makers of the education and health sectors; ensuring students and parents feel they have some sense of ownership in the life of the school; implementing a diversity of learning and teaching strategies; providing adequate time for class-based activities, organisation and coordination, and out of class activities; exploring health issues within the context of the students’ lives and community; utilising strategies that adopt a whole school approach rather than primarily a classroom learning approach; providing ongoing capacity-building opportunities for teachers and associated staff; creating an excellent social environment which fosters open and honest relationships within the school community; ensuring a consistency of approach across the school and between the school, home and wider community; developing both a sense of direction in the goals of the school and clear and unambiguous leadership and administrative support; providing resources that complement the fundamental role of the teacher and which are of a sound theoretical and accurate factual base; creating a climate where there are high expectations of students in their social interactions and educational attainments. The level of implementation of health promoting schools varies widely between member countries and even within countries. Importantly, the school managers expressed that having a school-health policy was vital to the success of their health promotion work and brought out the need of collaboration with school staff in all developmental intentions. • To facilitate action for health by building health knowledge and skills in the cognitive, social and behavioural domains – The school is a setting where health issues and perspectives are used to complement and enrich education priorities e.g. It is important that schools promote healthy eating habits through programs and guidelines 1. Effective Health Promoting Schools (HPS) make a major contribution to schools achieving their educational and social goals. According to the authors, the instrument needs additional developing, but already is a good start for measuring multisided phenomenon of school health promotion. CORRECT (P. 86): C. The first action the nurse should take using the nursing process is assessment. Huber et al. Health Promoting Schools (HPS) is an approach that supports school communities to create and sustain environments that improve and maintain their hauora (health and wellbeing). It furthers the University's objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide, This PDF is available to Subscribers Only. The SHE network has developed into an important platform for school health promotion in the European region. school health promotion in December 1994, which had been organized by WHO in collaboration with the National Centre for Health Promotion at the University of Sydney and which had a focus on Pacific island countries. The whole school approach used in the SHE network rests on five core values (equity, sustainability, inclusion, empowerment and action competence, democracy) and five pillars (whole school approach to health, participation, school quality, evidence base, involvement of schools and communities). McNamara et colleagues present a Canadian perspective for school recess, social connectedness and health by bringing the context of school recess into the conversation of Health Promoting Schools. The results suggest that studying in a school that is a member of the regional SHE network may have some positive effect on students’ health behaviours, whereas the school’s engagement with health activities was clearly demonstrated favouring the SHE network schools. This was confirmed in December 2016 at the WHO high level conference ‘Working together for better health and well-being’ in Paris, where school health promotion as well as the SHE network were explicitly mentioned in the draft declaration on promoting the health and well-being of every child and young person in the European region (WHO, 2016). Support, care, and trust, among others, were categorized as individual factors. The themes discourse basic pillars related to health promoting schools from theoretical, practical, policy and methodological perspectives focusing on participation in HPS and implementation of HPS. Making healthy decisions and taking control over life's circumstances. McNamara et colleagues emphasize that ‘if we are serious about providing opportunities to support children’s physical and mental health at school, then we cannot leave this responsibility to change’. It is an advocacy document for the health and education sectors to undertake school health promotion activities based on the evidence of effectiveness. The eco-holistic whole –school-approach (WSA) was the theoretical background in Busch and colleagues’ study in which the associations of several health behaviours (alcohol use, cannabis use and smoking habits; screen time use; bullying/being bullied; healthy nutrition and physical activity, psychosocial problems) with school performance was examined in a sample of Dutch secondary school students. The validity of the questionnaire was assessed by experts working in the field of health promoting schools, and the reliability by test-retest method by student sample. The health promoting school aims at achieving healthy lifestyles for the total school population by developing supportive environments conducive to the promotion of health. WHO's Health Promoting Schools initiative invites all governmental and nongovernmental organisations, development banks, organisations of the United Nations system, interregional bodies, bilateral agencies, the labour movement and co-operatives, as well as the private sector to help all schools to become Health Promoting Schools. The intervention contained multiple stages and included many activities, and proved to be feasible. It includes provisions and activities relating to health promoting school policies, the school’s physical and social environment, the curriculum, family and community links and health services at the school (SHE, 2014). It is assumed that when it comes to the evaluation of implementation, two options exist: (i) either the programme is delivered as planned, or not and (ii) either it delivers expected outcomes, or not. Based on interviews, group discussions, observations, and documents from multiple participants and sources, majority of identified health promotion activities were related to physical and/or psychosocial health of students. They suggest that schools need to include recess in planning to contribute the development of healthy children and of a healthy society, because health promotion involves creating supportive environments such as schools to optimize physical, mental and social well-being. The authors bring out the non-official status of health promotion in Austrian schools, and acknowledge the individual efforts that often occur behind the implementation. A health promoting school takes action to ‘promote and protect the health of its members, where health encompasses the dimensions of social, physical, intellectual, mental and emotional wellbeing’. However, the authors conclude that the implementation was resource and labour intensive and relatively expensive. There are still many epistemological and methodological issues in relationship to evaluation of health promotion effectiveness. Criterion 2 Promoting a healthy school encourages and promotes self-esteem and self-confidence by providing The induction is done by the head teacher or one of the Assistant Head Teacher. He reflects on the application of systems concepts to frame how health promoting school processes and outcomes can be operationalised. . This is surprising because, in theory, mental health is accepted as an essential component of health (WHO, 2001), the close relationship between physical and mental health is recognized (WFMH, 2004) and it is generally known that physical and mental health share many of the same social, environmental and economic determina… It also poses a question how the surrounding community could support schools more in their health promoting practices. Atilola highlights the need for child and adolescent mental health policy, training also of teachers, school counselors, primary health physicians and social workers in basic restorative child and adolescent mental health services. Telling people how to look after their health is just one part of health promotion. They suggest that schools need to include recess in planning to contribute the development of healthy children and of a healthy society, because health promotion involves creating supportive environments such as schools to optimize physical, mental and social well-being. The concept of Health Promoting School (HPS) initiated by WHO aims to move beyond individual behavioural change and consider organisational and structural change such as improving the school’s physical and social environment, its curricula, teaching and learning methods [6, 7]. Its development was inspired by the Ottawa Charter presented at the first international conference on health promotion in 1986, which helped changing the context for health promotion significantly. WHO's Global School Health Initiative, launched in 1995, seeks to mobilize and strengthen health promotion and education activities at the local, national, regional and global levels. Children and adolescents need to be encouraged for physical activity, either supervised, or non-supervised, since nowadays many factors are competing for their time. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com, Psychological impacts of COVID-19 pandemic on the university students in Egypt, Role of technical assistance in U.S. labor and health sector collaboration to address precarious work, Critical health literacy in pandemics: the special case of COVID-19, Work-life (im)balance? Currently there are 45 member countries in the European region, as well as six autonomous regions (from Italy, Spain and the Netherlands). An effective school health programme can be one of the most cost effective investments a nation can make to simultaneously improve education and health. In a Canadian-based study, school principals, teachers and parents were interviewed and based on the results, identified the barriers as structural and systemic, such as large class sizes or financial challenges. The SHE network has demonstrated progress on a European and an international level, emphasising the role of schools in improving the health of children and young people. In the SHE network a health promoting school is defined as ‘a school that implements a structured and systematic plan for the health, well-being and the development of social capital of all pupils and of teaching and non-teaching staff’ (SHE, 2014). (, Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford. Health promoting schools focus on: caring for oneself and others. Langford … It also stresses that families and the community should be involved (see Sormunen et al., 2013). Health promotion in a school setting could be defined as any activity undertaken to improve and/or protect the health of all school users. The health status of the learners, educators, community and the environment is enhanced. Strives to improve the health of school personnel, families and community members as well as pupils; and works with community leaders to help them understand how the community contributes to, or undermines, health and education. 44. Health promotion is a set of actions to foster good health and wellbeing. Health promoting schools focus on: Caring for oneself and others. Each advocacy document makes a strong case for addressing an important health problem, identifies components of a comprehensive school health programme, and provides guidance in integrating the issue into the components. This document complements the recommendations to establish and sustain health promotion in schools set out in the Guidelines to Promote Health in Schools document. In addition, a global partnership for the purpose of competence transfer is needed. These results truly encourage the inclusion of students, regardless of their age, in all kinds of health promoting activities. The perspective is intersectoral since the core business of schools is focused on educational outcomes, rather than the reduction of health problems. This study emphasizes the importance of continuing, persistent reinforcing of a health promoting way of thinking and daily actions while educational demands of hectic school life are increasing. Such activities went beyond the scope of traditional health education. ‘Health promotion is the process of enabling people to increase control over, and to improve, their ... action to change public policies. WHO promotes school health programmes as a strategic means to prevent important health risks among youth and to engage the education sector in efforts to change the educational, social, economic and political conditions that affect risk. Also in the United States and Canada the ‘Comprehensive School Health Program’ and more recently the ‘Whole School, Whole Community, Whole Child’ model are used more frequently. Creating conditions that are conducive to health (through policies, services, physical/social conditions). The findings suggest that the schools have a lot of potential to act towards healthier communities, if the individuals are engaged to the processes in a sustainable way. It uses a more open concept of health, in which children and young people should be involved in defining their own health. Struthers and colleagues report the development process and the assessment of psychometric properties of the Health Promoting Schools Monitoring Questionnaire in South African high schools. The members of the Schools for Health in Europe (SHE) network use a positive concept of health and well-being and acknowledge the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child. While countries may differ in nomenclature and structure to varying degrees, similar underpinning principles apply to all and the definition of a Health Promoting School (HPS) provided by the World Health Organisation (WHO 2015) encapsulates these well: ‘a school that is constantly strengthening its capacity as a healthy setting for living, learning and working’. However, it seems that there were features related to critical health education containing a holistic understanding of health, the need for critical and plural participation and the importance of community. The second challenge is specific to a wider replication of interventions which cannot be taken for granted because the determinants involved are numerous, variable and contextually influenced. There is a growing body of evidence on the link between health and education on the one hand and effectiveness of school health promotion on the other hand. All school employees should also be aware that they are almost always being watched by students and other community members. Stigma and lack of understanding about mental disorders are major barriers to seeking help and promoting better mental health. A collaborative work coordinated by the International Union for Health Promotion and Education (St Leger et al., 2008) summarises what has been shown to work well and are prominent features of effective schools. Thus, the intervention programme and its content remain the same, however, more context-specific thinking is applied to the implementation process, and the types of achievements that might be expected from it (Darlington, 2016). This is characterized as a whole school approach (or ‘whole of school approach’) to health and well-being; in different European countries similar terms are used such as ‘healthy schools’, ‘good and healthy schools’, but they all have a similar intention. This document summarizes the importance of HPS for promoting early action on noncommunicable disease risk … Therefore, there is a need to shift from the over focus on ‘one size fits all’ evidence-based fidelity, to a more flexible perspective of anchoring and tailoring interventions to the different contexts. Increasing understanding and overcoming stigma through strategic communications and social mobilization are crucial steps … The system thinking theme continues in a study from Tooher and colleagues in Australia from the point of view of integration and collaboration in various school-based health programmes and the barriers and enablers to successful intersectoral collaboration between education. They have expressed their commitment to the further development, expansion and/or improvement of their national health promoting school programmes (SHE, 2013; Buijis et al., 2014). The positive effects were stably effective in the second cohort, except for social anxiety. A systematic review of studies on the effectiveness of school health promotion efforts, further concluded that programmes that account for contextual factors and emphasize multidimensional approaches are more likely to be effective in terms of health outcomes (Stewart-Brown, 2006). Using health, food and education policy documents in the textual analyses Torres studied opportunities in the policy framing for a school-based critical health education in Ecuador, from a conceptual perspective combining the HPS approach with critical nutrition and political ecology. The Schools for Health in Europe network (SHE network, www.schools-for-health.eu) was initiated by the World Health Organization for the European region (WHO EURO) in 1992, together with the Council of Europe and the European Commission. (, Moynihan S., Jourdan D., Mannix Mcnamara P. (, Sormunen M., Tossavainen K., Turunen H. (, St Leger L., Young I., Blanchard C., Perry M. (, Waters E., de Silva-Sanigorski A., Hall B.J., Brown T., Campbell K.J., Gao Y. et al. It is not ‘promotion’ as in the sense of the word usually understood. Fosters health and learning with all the measures at its disposal. Schools include health and wellbeing in their planning and review processes, teaching strategies, curriculum and assessment activities. Strives to provide a healthy environment, school health education, and school health services along with school/community projects and outreach, health promotion programmes for staff, nutrition and food safety programmes, opportunities for physical education and recreation, and programmes for counselling, social support and mental health promotion. ... volunteers are expected to sign that they have understood the H&S School’s policy in the presence of the trainer. When autocomplete results are available use up and down arrows to review and enter to select. Making healthy decisions and taking control over life's circumstances. Leadership and management practices • Secure political support and leadership from the health … Plan and prepare Emergency operations plans: review, update, and implement EOPs. A diversity that often makes comparisons difficult. Rosas concludes that the complex modern school environments and re-conceptualization of health promoting school concept would benefit from system thinking and complexity characteristics and system science approach. Start studying Community Health ATI #2. The political organisation, priorities, degree of decentralisation, organisation and goals of education systems differ from one country to another. The most important actions for school administrators to take before reopening in-person services and facilities are planning and preparing.To best prepare, schools should expect that students, teachers, or staff may contract symptoms consistent with COVID-19, and schools must know what to do when this … A novel data collection method was used in the Kontak and colleagues’ study while examining school-based health environments through photographs in Canada. A health promoting school (HPS) is a school that constantly seeks to strengthen its capacity to promote healthy living, learning and working conditions. In 2013, a survey was conducted among the national coordinators of the SHE network in Europe to gain an overview of current health promoting school policies. The health promoting school approach has been adapted in many European countries, Australia and New Zealand. In addition, several methodological papers are presented including new instrument development, an innovative data collection method as well as analyses of complex system science in relation to HPS. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Evidence exists to document the beneficial effects of a health promotion policy in schools, but it is also clear that effectiveness is not always attained. Strengthening national capacities: collaboration between health and education agencies is fostered, and countries are helped to develop strategies and programmes to improve health through schools. A health promoting school is one that constantly strengthens its capacity as a healthy setting for living, learning and working. Healthy School Award schemes, which provide structured frameworks, health-related targets and external support, represent one way of helping schools become health promoting, a factor identified in the UK Health of the Nation Government White Paper (1992) as facilitating the achievements of stated targets for prevention. In addition to these weaknesses in the assessment of the effectiveness of health promotion programmes in schools, the issues of scaling up and transferability remain rarely examined. Until then, the more traditional approach to health education in schools was, and often still is, focused on gaining knowledge about diseases and healthy behaviour based on a narrow concept of health. These include preschools, primary, secondary and other types of schools, including vocational schools. The goal of WHO's Global School Health Initiative is to increase the number of schools that can truly be called "Health-Promoting Schools". Health Promoting Schools (HPS) is an approach where the whole school community works together to address the health and wellbeing of students, staff and their community. Creating networks and alliances for the development of health-promoting schools: regional networks for the development of Health-Promoting Schools have been initiated in Europe, Western Pacific and Latin America. Coronavirus disease outbreak (COVID-2019), Coronavirus disease outbreak (COVID-19) », Making every school a health promoting school. 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